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Blog Risk Assessment

Introduction to System Safety Risk Assessment

In this ‘Introduction to System Safety Risk Assessment’, we will pull together several key ideas.

First, we’ll talk about System Safety. This is safety engineering done in a Systems Engineering Framework. We are doing safety within a rigorous process.

Second, we’re talking about Risk Assessment. This is a term for putting together different activities within another process. This process may be basic, or it might be quite sophisticated, as illustrated, below.

Shows the elements, progression and cycle of the Risk Assessment Process from ISO 31000
The Risk Assessment Process

Third, and finally, we will put all this together into a System Safety Program. This is hinted at in the diagram, above, but a real system safety program needs to do a lot more than this. It needs to tie into the project it supports, to systems engineering, to resources, quality, V&V, etc. Designing such a program is complex, so we typically follow a standard, like Mil-Std-882E.

You can hear more about this in the introductory video, below.

Introduction Video

Transcript:

Introduction

Hello,

Welcome to this course on Systems Safety Risk Analysis Programs. I’m Simon Di Nucci, The Safety Artisan, and I’ve been a safety engineer and consultant for over 20 years. I’ve worked on a wide range of safety programs doing risk analysis on all kinds of things. Ships, planes, trains, air traffic management systems, software systems, you name it.

I’ve worked in the U.K., in Australia, and on many systems from the U.S. I’ve also spent hundreds of hours training hundreds of people on safety. And now I’ve got the opportunity to share some of that knowledge with you online.

So, what are the benefits of this course?

First of all, you will learn about basic concepts. About system safety, what it is and what it does. You will know how to apply a risk analysis program to a very complex system and how to manage that complexity. So, that’s what you’ll know.

At the end of the course, you will also be able to do things that you might not have been able to do before. You will be able to take the elements of a risk analysis program and the different tasks. You can select the right tasks and form a program to suit your application, whatever it might be. Whether you might:

  • Have a full, high-risk bespoke development system,
  • Be taking a commercial system off the shelf and doing something new with it, or
  • Take a product and use it in a new application or a new location.

Whatever it might be, you will learn how to tailor your risk analysis program. This program will give you the analyses you need. And to meet your legal and regulatory requirements. Once you’ve learned how to do this, you can apply it to almost any system.

Finally, you will feel confident doing this. I will be interpreting the terminology used in the tasks and applying my experience. So, instead of reading the standard and being unsure of your interpretation, you can be sure of what you need to do. Also, I will show you how you can get good results and avoid some of the pitfalls.

These are the three benefits of the Course

  1. You will know what to do.
  2. You will be able to perform risk program tasks, and
  3. You’ll feel confident doing those tasks.

At the end of the course, I will also show you where to find further resources. There are free resources to choose from. But there are also paid resources for those who want to take your studies to the next level. I hope you enjoy the course.

This is Module 1 of SSRAP

This is Module 1 from the System Safety Risk Assessment Program (SSRAP) Course. Risk Analysis Programs – Design a System Safety Program for any system in any application.

The full course comprises 15 lessons and 1.5 hours of video content, plus resources. It’s on pre-sale at HALF PRICE until September 1st, 2024. Check out all the free preview videos here and order using the coupon “Pre-order-Half-Price-SSRAP”. But don’t leave it too long because there are only 100 half-price courses available!

Meet the Author

Learn safety engineering with me, an industry professional with 25 years of experience, I have:

•Worked on aircraft, ships, submarines, ATMS, trains, and software;

•Tiny programs to some of the biggest (Eurofighter, Future Submarine);

•In the UK and Australia, on US and European programs;

•Taught safety to hundreds of people in the classroom, and thousands online;

•Presented on safety topics at several international conferences.

Categories
Blog

The 2024 Blog Digest – Q1/Q2

The 2024 Blog Digest – Q1/Q2 brings you all of The Safety Artisan’s blog posts from the first six months of this year. I hope that you find this a useful resource!

The 2024 Blog Digest – Q1/Q2: 25 Posts!

  • Introduction to System Safety Risk Assessment
    In this ‘Introduction to System Safety Risk Assessment’, we will pull together several key ideas. First, we’ll talk about System Safety. This is safety engineering done in a Systems Engineering Framework. We are doing safety within a rigorous process. Second, we’re talking about Risk Assessment. This is a term for putting together different activities within… Read more: Introduction to System Safety Risk Assessment
  • The 2024 Blog Digest – Q1/Q2
    The 2024 Blog Digest – Q1/Q2 brings you all of The Safety Artisan’s blog posts from the first six months of this year. I hope that you find this a useful resource! The 2024 Blog Digest – Q1/Q2: 25 Posts! There’s More! Head over to my Thinkfic Site for courses & webinars. Subscribe for a… Read more: The 2024 Blog Digest – Q1/Q2
  • Environmental Hazard Analysis
    This is the full-length (one hour) session on Environmental Hazard Analysis (EHA), which is Task 210 in Mil-Std-882E. I explore the aim, task description, and contracting requirements of this Task, but this is only half the video. In the commentary, I then look at environmental requirements in the USA, UK, and Australia, before examining how… Read more: Environmental Hazard Analysis
  • System of Systems Hazard Analysis
    In this full-length (38-minute) session, The Safety Artisan looks at System of Systems Hazard Analysis, or SoSHA, which is Task 209 in Mil-Std-882E. SoSHA analyses collections of systems, which are often put together to create a new capability, which is enabled by human brokering between the different systems. We explore the aim, description, and contracting… Read more: System of Systems Hazard Analysis
  • Health Hazard Analysis
    In this full-length (55-minute) session, The Safety Artisan looks at Health Hazard Analysis, or HHA, which is Task 207 in Mil-Std-882E. I explore the aim, description, and contracting requirements of this complex Task. It covers: physical, chemical & biological hazards; Hazardous Materials (HAZMAT); ergonomics, aka Human Factors; the Operational Environment; and non/ionizing radiation. I will… Read more: Health Hazard Analysis
  • Preliminary Hazard Identification & Analysis Guide: Free
    Get the Preliminary Hazard Identification & Analysis Guide for free! It’s a 50-page .pdf download, collated from reliable sources. Contents: Preliminary Hazard Identification & Analysis Guide – Introduction Hazard Identification has been defined as: “The process of identifying and listing the hazards and accidents associated with a system.” Hazard Analysis has been defined as: “The… Read more: Preliminary Hazard Identification & Analysis Guide: Free
  • Safety and Risk Audit
    So, what I’m talking about today is safety and risk audit, that is about process, Q&A, and some personal experience. Also something called layered process audits, which I ran into while researching this webinar. I thought that sounded interesting – and it is! Those are today’s topics for the webinar. Audit Process I’m talking about… Read more: Safety and Risk Audit
  • Operating & Support Hazard Analysis
    In this full-length session, I look at Operating & Support Hazard Analysis, or O&SHA, which is Task 206 in Mil-Std-882E. I explore Task 206’s aim, description, scope, and contracting requirements. There’s value-adding commentary, which explains O&SHA: how to use it with other tasks; how to apply it effectively on different products; and some of the… Read more: Operating & Support Hazard Analysis
  • System Requirements Hazard Analysis
    In this 45-minute session, I’m looking at System Requirements Hazard Analysis, or SRHA, which is Task 203 in the Mil-Std-882E standard. I will explore Task 203’s aim, description, scope, and contracting requirements.  SRHA is an important and complex task, which must be done on several levels to succeed.  This video explains the issues and discusses… Read more: System Requirements Hazard Analysis
  • Identify and Analyze Functional Hazards
    So, how do we identify and analyze functional hazards? I’ve seen a lot of projects and programs. We’re great at doing the physical hazards, but not so good at the functional hazards. So, when I talk about physical and functional hazards, the physical stuff, I think we’re probably all very familiar with them. They’re all… Read more: Identify and Analyze Functional Hazards
  • Foundations of System Safety
    So today, we’re talking about the Foundations of System Safety assessment. And as it says, it’s a free webinar from The Safety Artisan, and it’s one of a series. So, before we go on, I’ll just introduce myself. Why should you bother to listen to me? Well, in 25 years of experience in system safety,… Read more: Foundations of System Safety
  • Failure Mode Effects Analysis
    TL;DR This article on Failure Mode Effects Analysis explains this powerful and commonly used family of techniques. You can access this webinar (and all the others) here. I have used FMEA and related techniques on many programs and it can produce powerful results quickly and cheaply. Recently, I’ve seen some criticism of FEMA on social… Read more: Failure Mode Effects Analysis
  • Five Ways to Identify Hazards
    In my webinar ‘Five Ways to Identify Hazards’ I look at a mix of techniques. We need these diverse techniques to assure us (give justified confidence) that we have identified the full range of hazards associated with a system. To do this I draw on my 25 years of experience (see ‘Meet the Author‘, below)… Read more: Five Ways to Identify Hazards
  • Exploring Causal Analysis: Techniques and Insights
    In this post, ‘Exploring Causal Analysis: Techniques and Insights’, I provide a quick summary of my recent webinar. You can see a short video introduction below, or access the full webinar at my Safety Engineering Academy. Introduction: Causal analysis is a vital aspect of system safety engineering, offering insights into the root causes of issues… Read more: Exploring Causal Analysis: Techniques and Insights
  • Full Function Hazard Logs: A Deep Dive into Relational Databases
    In this post ‘Full Function Hazard Logs: A Deep Dive into Relational Databases’, I explore some things we can do with a hazard log built upon a database. In my 25-year career in safety engineering, I’ve seen many hazard logs and hazard tracking systems. Most of them were hosted in Microsoft Excel, but there were… Read more: Full Function Hazard Logs: A Deep Dive into Relational Databases
  • System Hazard Analysis with Mil-Std-882E
    In this 45-minute session, I look at System Hazard Analysis with Mil-Std-882E. SHA is Task 205 in the Standard. I explore Task 205’s aim, description, scope, and contracting requirements. I also provide commentary, based on working with this Standard since 1996, which explains SHA. How to use it to complement Sub-System Hazard Analysis (SSHA, Task… Read more: System Hazard Analysis with Mil-Std-882E
  • Functional Hazard Analysis with Mil-Std-882E
    In this video, I look at Functional Hazard Analysis with Mil-Std-882E (FHA, which is Task 208 in Mil-Std-882E). FHA analyses software, complex electronic hardware, and human interactions. I explore the aim, description, and contracting requirements of this Task, and provide extensive commentary on it. (I refer to other lessons for special techniques for software safety… Read more: Functional Hazard Analysis with Mil-Std-882E
  • How to do Preliminary Hazard Analysis with Mil-Std-882E
    In this 45-minute session, I look at how to do a Preliminary Hazard Analysis with Mil-Std-882E. Preliminary Hazard Analysis, or PHA, is Task 202 in the Standard. I explore Task 202’s aim, description, scope, and contracting requirements. There’s value-adding commentary, and I explain the issues with PHA – how to do it well and avoid… Read more: How to do Preliminary Hazard Analysis with Mil-Std-882E
  • Safety Engineering Academy Webinars
    Safety Engineering Academy Webinars are on vital topics. I run them live every month, and you can get them all at the Safety Engineering Academy here. They draw on my practical experience of these tools and techniques, from my 25-year-plus career. I have personally used all of these techniques, and I have seen them used… Read more: Safety Engineering Academy Webinars
  • Challenges of Online Learning
    What are the Challenges of Online Learning?  In my previous article, I looked at ‘Five Key Dimensions of Online Learning’, which explored what makes it popular.  But there’s a downside too – things that put students off.  What are they, and can they be fixed? “Top reasons cited by students who do not intend to… Read more: Challenges of Online Learning
  • Sub-System Hazard Analysis with Mil-Std-882E
    In this video lesson, I look at Sub-System Hazard Analysis with Mil-Std-882E (SSHA, which is Task 204). I teach the mechanics of the task, but not just that. I’m using my long experience with this Standard to teach a pragmatic approach to getting the work done. Task 204 is one of three tasks that integrate… Read more: Sub-System Hazard Analysis with Mil-Std-882E
  • Preliminary Hazard Identification & Analysis Guide
    Get your free Preliminary Hazard Identification & Analysis, PHIA Guide here! Introduction Hazard Identification is sometimes defined as: “The process of identifying and listing the hazards and accidents associated with a system.” Hazard Analysis is sometimes defined as: “The process of describing in detail the hazards and accidents associated with a system and defining accident… Read more: Preliminary Hazard Identification & Analysis Guide
  • Five Key Dimensions of Online Learning
    In this article ‘Five Key Dimensions of Online Learning’, I discuss the learning dimensions and attributes that students are looking for. How do I know what students are looking for? Fortunately “McKinsey surveyed more than 7,000 students in 17 countries to find out which elements of online higher education they value most.”[1] Unfortunately, McKinsey didn’t… Read more: Five Key Dimensions of Online Learning
  • What Have Hazard Logs Ever Done for Us?
    “What Have Hazard Logs Ever Done for Us? Well, there’s the aqueduct…” Monty Python’s Flying Circus may not be an obvious connection to hazard management, but it works! Hazard Logs – or Hazard Tracking Systems (HTS), which is a better term – are underappreciated but vital tools. In this webinar on hazard logs, one of… Read more: What Have Hazard Logs Ever Done for Us?
  • Optimizing Safety: Active Hazard Management with Hazard Logs
    In ‘Optimizing Safety: Active Hazard Management with Hazard Logs’ we look at how to unleash the power of this underrated tool! Introduction A Hazard Log is more than just a record; it’s a dynamic tool for actively managing safety risks associated with systems. This continually updated log encapsulates Hazards, Accident Sequences, and Accidents, ensuring a… Read more: Optimizing Safety: Active Hazard Management with Hazard Logs

There’s More!

Head over to my Thinkfic Site for courses & webinars. Subscribe for a free course starter pack and regular email support. Leave a comment, below!

Meet the Author

Learn safety engineering with me, an industry professional with 25 years of experience, I have:

•Worked on aircraft, ships, submarines, ATMS, trains, and software;

•Tiny programs to some of the biggest (Eurofighter, Future Submarine);

•In the UK and Australia, on US and European programs;

•Taught safety to hundreds of people in the classroom, and thousands online;

•Presented on safety topics at several international conferences.

Categories
Blog Mil-Std-882E

Environmental Hazard Analysis

This is the full-length (one hour) session on Environmental Hazard Analysis (EHA), which is Task 210 in Mil-Std-882E. I explore the aim, task description, and contracting requirements of this Task, but this is only half the video. In the commentary, I then look at environmental requirements in the USA, UK, and Australia, before examining how to apply EHA in detail under the Australian/international regime. This uses my practical experience of applying EHA. 

You Will Learn to:

  • Conduct EHA according to the standard;
  • Record EHA results correctly;
  • Contract for EHA successfully;
  • Be aware of the regulatory scene in the US, UK, and Australia;
  • Appreciate the complexities of conducting EHA in Australia; and
  • Recognize when your EHA program requires specialist support.
This is the seven-minute demo of the full-length (one hour) session on Environmental Hazard Analysis.

Topics: Environmental Hazard Analysis

  • Environmental Hazard Analysis (EHA) Purpose;
  • Task Description (7+ slides);
  • Documentation, HAZMAT & Contracting (2 slides each);
  • Commentary (8 slides); and
  • Conclusion.

Transcript: Environmental Hazard Analysis

Introduction

Hi, everyone, and welcome to the Safety Artisan. Today, we’re going to be talking about Environmental Hazard Analysis – A big topic! And I’m covering this as part of the series on the System Safety Engineering Standard – Mil. Standard 882E. But it doesn’t really matter what standard we are using the topic is still relevant.

Environmental Hazard Analysis is a big topic because we’ll cover everything, not just hazards. At the end of this session, you should be able to enjoy three benefits. First of all, you should know how to approach Environmental hazard analysis from:

  • The point of view of the requirements,
  • The Hazard Analysis itself (the process), and
  • Some national and international variations in the English-speaking world.

So, you should know how to do the basics and also to recognize when maybe you need to bring in a specialist.

But maybe most important of all, number three is you should have the confidence to be able to get started. So I’m hoping that this session is really going to help you get started, know what you can do, and then maybe recognize when you need to bring in some specialist help or go and seek some further information.

As you’ll see, it’s a big, complex subject. I can get you started today, but that’s all I can do in one session. And in fact, I think that’s all anyone can do in one session. Anyway, let’s get on with it and see what we’ve got.

Environmental Hazard Analysis, Mil-Std-882E Task 210

Environmental Hazard Analysis, which is Task 210 under Mil. Standard 882E. So let’s look at what we’re going to talk about today.

Topics for this Session

And you’ll see why it’s going to be quite a lengthy session. I think it will last an hour because we’re going to go through the Purpose and Task Description of Environmental Hazard Analysis as set out in the Mil. Standard. And it says seven-plus slides because there are seven mainstream slides plus some illustrations in there as well. Then we’ve got a couple of slides each on Documentation, Hazardous Materials or HAZMAT, and Contracting. Then eight slides of Commentary and this is the major value add because I’ll be talking about applying Environmental Hazard Analysis in a US, UK, and Australian jurisdiction under the different laws, which I have some experience of.

I worked closely with environmental specialists on the Eurofighter Typhoon project, and I’ve also worked closely with the same specialists on US programs which had been bought by different countries. And then finally, I’ve been closely involved in a major environmental – or safety and environmental – project here in Australia. So I’ve been exposed and learned the hard way about how things work or don’t work here in Australia. So I’ve got some relevant experience to share with you, as well as some learned material to share with you. And then a little Conclusion, because I say this will take us an hour so there’s quite a lot of material to cover. So, let’s get right on with it.

EHA

So the purpose of Environmental Hazards Analysis, or EHA, as it says, is to support design development decisions. Now all of the 882 tasks are meant to do this, but actually, the wording in Task 210 is the clearest of all of them. Really makes it explicit what we’re trying to do, which is excellent.

So we’re going to identify hazards throughout the life cycle – cradle to grave, whatever system it is. We’re going to document and record those hazards and their leading particulars within the Hazard Tracking System or Hazard Log, as we more often call it. We’re going to manage the hazards using the same system safety process in Section Four as we use for safety. This is the process that you will have heard in the other lessons that I’ve given. And very often under 882, Safety and Environmental Hazards are considered together. There are pros and cons with that approach, but nevertheless, a lot of the work is common. We’ll see why later on.

In this American standard, it says we are to provide specific data to support the National Environmental Policy Act and executive order requirements. So the NEPA is an American piece of legislation and therefore I use this color blue to indicate anything that’s an American-specific requirement. So if you’re not operating in America, you’ll need to find the equivalent to manage to and to comply with. Moving on…

…see the full transcript here (TBD).

Links: Environmental Hazard Analysis

The links mentioned in the video are here:

You can find a free pdf of the System Safety Engineering Standard, Mil-Std-882E, here.

Meet the Author

Learn safety engineering with me, an industry professional with 25 years of experience, I have:

•Worked on aircraft, ships, submarines, ATMS, trains, and software;

•Tiny programs to some of the biggest (Eurofighter, Future Submarine);

•In the UK and Australia, on US and European programs;

•Taught safety to hundreds of people in the classroom, and thousands online;

•Presented on safety topics at several international conferences.

Categories
Mil-Std-882E Safety Analysis

System of Systems Hazard Analysis

In this full-length (38-minute) session, The Safety Artisan looks at System of Systems Hazard Analysis, or SoSHA, which is Task 209 in Mil-Std-882E. SoSHA analyses collections of systems, which are often put together to create a new capability, which is enabled by human brokering between the different systems. We explore the aim, description, and contracting requirements of this Task, and an extended example to illustrate SoSHA. (We refer to other lessons for special techniques for Human Factors analysis.)

This is the seven-minute demo version of the full 38-minute video.

System of Systems Hazard Analysis: Topics

  • System of Systems (SoS) HA Purpose;
  • Task Description (2 slides);
  • Documentation (2 slides);
  • Contracting (2 slides);
  • Example (7 slides); and
  • Summary.

Transcript: System of Systems Hazard Analysis

Introduction

Hello everyone and welcome to the Safety Artisan. I’m Simon and today we’re going to be talking about System of Systems Hazard Analysis – a bit of a mouthful that. What does it actually mean? Well, we shall see.

System of Systems Hazard Analysis

So, for Systems of Systems Hazard Analysis, we’re using task 209 as the description of what to do taken from a military standard, 882E. But to be honest, it doesn’t really matter whether you’re doing a military system or a civil system, whatever it might be – if you’ve got a system of systems, then this will help you to do it.

Topics for this Session

So, we look at the purpose of system of systems. By the way, if you’re wondering what that is what I’m talking about is when we take different things that we’ve developed elsewhere, e.g. platforms, electronic systems, whatever it might be, and we put them together. Usually, with humans gluing the system together somewhere, it must be said, to make it all tick and fit together.

Then we want this collection of systems to do something new, to give us some new capability, which we didn’t have before. So, that’s what I’m talking about when I say system of systems. I’ll show you an example – it’s the best way.

We’ve got a couple of slides on task description, a couple of slides or documentation, and a couple of slides on contracting. Task 209 has a very short task description, and therefore I’ve decided to go through an example. So, we’ve got seven slides of an example of a system of systems, safety case, and safety case report that I wrote. Hopefully, that will illustrate far better than just reading out the description. And that will also give us some issues that can emerge with systems of systems and I’ll summarize those at the end.

SOSHA Purpose

So, let’s get on. I’m going to call it the SOSHA for short; Systems of Systems Hazard Analysis. The purpose of the SOSHA, task 209, is to document or perform and document the analysis of the system of systems and identify unique system of systems hazards. So, things we don’t get from each system in isolation. This task is going to produce special requirements to deal with these hazards, which otherwise would not exist. Until we put the things together and start using them for something new – We’ve not done this before…

see the full transcript here.

End: System of Systems Hazard Analysis

So, that is the end of the presentation and it just remains for me to say thanks very much for watching and listening. It’s been good to spend some time with you and I look forward to talking to you next time about environmental analysis, which is Task 210 in the military standard … until then, goodbye.

Meet the Author

Learn safety engineering with me, an industry professional with 25 years of experience, I have:

•Worked on aircraft, ships, submarines, ATMS, trains, and software;

•Tiny programs to some of the biggest (Eurofighter, Future Submarine);

•In the UK and Australia, on US and European programs;

•Taught safety to hundreds of people in the classroom, and thousands online;

•Presented on safety topics at several international conferences.

Categories
Mil-Std-882E Safety Analysis

Health Hazard Analysis

In this full-length (55-minute) session, The Safety Artisan looks at Health Hazard Analysis, or HHA, which is Task 207 in Mil-Std-882E. I explore the aim, description, and contracting requirements of this complex Task. It covers: physical, chemical & biological hazards; Hazardous Materials (HAZMAT); ergonomics, aka Human Factors; the Operational Environment; and non/ionizing radiation. I will outline how to implement Task 207 in compliance with Australian WHS. (See also other lessons for specific tools and techniques, such as Human Factors analysis methods.)

This is the seven-minute-long demo. The full version is a 55-minute-long whopper!

Health Hazard Analysis: Topics

  • Task 207 Purpose;
  • Task Description;
  • ‘A Health Hazard is…’;
  • ‘HHA Shall provide Information…’;
  • HAZMAT;
  • Ergonomics;
  • Operating Environment;
  • Radiation; and
  • Commentary.

Health Hazard Analysis: Transcript

Introduction

Hello, everyone, and welcome to the Safety Artisan. I’m Simon, your host, and today we are talking about health hazard analysis.

Task 207: Health Hazard Analysis

This is Task 207 in the Mil. standard, 882E approach, which is targeted for defense systems, but you will see it used elsewhere. The principles that we’re going to talk about today are widely applicable. So, you could use this standard for other things if you wish.

Topics for this Session

We’ve got a big session today so I’m going to plough straight on. We’re going to cover the purpose of the task; and the description; the task helpfully defines what a health hazard is; and says what health hazard analysis, or HHA, shall provide in terms of information. We talk about three specialist subjects – hazardous materials or hazmat, ergonomics, and operating environment. Also, radiation is covered, as another specialist area. Then we’ll have some commentary from myself.

Now the requirements of the standard of this task are so extensive that for the first time, I won’t be quoting all of them, word for word. I’ve actually had to chop out some material, but I’ll explain that when we come to it. We can work with that but it is quite a demanding task, as we’ll see.

Task Purpose

Let’s look at the task purpose. We are to perform and document a health hazard analysis to identify human health hazards and evaluate what it says, materials and processes using materials, etc, that might cause harm to people, and to propose measures to eliminate the hazards or reduce the associated risks. In many respects, it’s a standard 882-type approach. We’re going to do all the usual things. However, as we shall see it, we’re going to do quite a lot more on this one.

Task Description #1

So, task description. We need to evaluate the potential effects resulting from exposure to hazards, and this is something I will come back to again and again. It’s very easy dealing in this area, particularly with hazardous materials, to get hung up on every little tiny amount of potentially hazardous material that is in the system or in a particular environment and I’ve seen this done to death so many times. I’ve seen it overdone in the UK when COSHH, a control of substance hazardous to health, came in in the military. We went bonkers about this. We did risk assessments up the yin-yang for stuff that we just did not need to worry about. Stuff that was in every office up and down the land. So, we need to be sensible about doing this, and I’ll keep coming back to that.

So, we need to do as it says; identification assessment, characterization, control, and communicate assets in the workplace environment. We need to follow a systems approach, considering “What’s the total impact of all these potential stressors on the human operator or maintainer?” Again, I come from a maintenance background. The operator often gets lots of attention because a) because if the operator stuffs up, you very often end up with a very nasty accident where lots of people get hurt. So, that’s a legitimate focus for a human operator of a system.

But also, a lot of organizations, the executive management tend to be operators because that’s how the organization evolves. So, sometimes you can have an emphasis on operations and maintenance and support, and other things get ignored because they’re not sexy enough to the senior management. That’s a bad reason for not looking at stuff. We need to think about the big picture, not just the people who are in control…

get the full transcript here.

End: Health Hazard Analysis

So, that is the end of the session. Thank you very much for listening. And all that remains for me to say is thanks very much for supporting the work of the Safety Artisan and tuning into this video. And I wish you every success in your work now and in the future. Goodbye.

Meet the Author

Learn safety engineering with me, an industry professional with 25 years of experience, I have:

•Worked on aircraft, ships, submarines, ATMS, trains, and software;

•Tiny programs to some of the biggest (Eurofighter, Future Submarine);

•In the UK and Australia, on US and European programs;

•Taught safety to hundreds of people in the classroom, and thousands online;

•Presented on safety topics at several international conferences.

Categories
Blog Safety Analysis

Preliminary Hazard Identification & Analysis Guide: Free

Get the Preliminary Hazard Identification & Analysis Guide for free! It’s a 50-page .pdf download, collated from reliable sources.

Contents:

  • Introduction …………………………….1
  • Aim …………………………………………1
  • Description ………………………………2
  • Method ……………………………………3
  • Guidance …………………………………4
  • Inspect the Workplace ………………7
  • How to find hazards …………………8
  • Review available information ……8
  • Consult Your Workers ……………..10
  • When to Consult with Workers …10
  • Hazard Checklists ……………………12
  • Functional Safety Analysis ……….16
  • FMEA/FMECA ……………………….21
  • SWIFT …………………………………..28
  • HAZOP ………………………………….42
Front cover of PHIA Guide
The Safety Artisan’s PHIA Guide

Preliminary Hazard Identification & Analysis Guide – Introduction

Hazard Identification has been defined as: “The process of identifying and listing the hazards and accidents associated with a system.”

Hazard Analysis has been defined as: “The process of describing in detail the hazards and accidents associated with a system and defining accident sequences.”

Preliminary Hazard Identification and Analysis (PHIA) is intended to help you determine the scope of the safety activities and requirements. It identifies the main hazards likely to arise from the capability and functionality being provided. It is carried out as early as possible in the project life cycle, providing an important early input to setting Safety requirements and refining the Project Safety Plan.

PHIA seeks to answer, at an early stage of the project, the question: “What Hazards and Accidents might affect this system and how could they happen?”

Aim

The aim of the PHIA is to identify, as early as possible, the main Hazards and Accidents that may arise during the life of the system. It provides input to:

  1. Scoping the subsequent Safety activities required in any Safety Plan. A successful PHIA will help to gauge the proportionate effort that is likely to be required to produce an effective Safety Case, proportionate to risks.
  2. Selecting or eliminating options for subsequent assessment.
  3. Setting the initial Safety requirements and criteria.
  4. Subsequent Hazard Analyses.
  5. Initiate Hazard Log.

Did You Know?

You can also get the Guide with the PHIA Triple Lesson Bundle.

Preliminary Hazard Identification & Analysis Guide: Free

Categories
Blog Tools & Techniques

Safety and Risk Audit

So, what I’m talking about today is safety and risk audit, that is about process, Q&A, and some personal experience. Also something called layered process audits, which I ran into while researching this webinar. I thought that sounded interesting – and it is! Those are today’s topics for the webinar.

Audit Process

I’m talking about the safety audit process based on the UK Acquisition Safety and Environmental Management System or ASEMs. This was developed by experts for the UK MOD, and I remember it being introduced when I used to work there.

It’s a very good system, it’s very thorough and complete. (It is effectively copyright-free, so I can share it with you, and you can access, use it, and modify it perfectly legally.)

First, we should recognize the Project Oriented Safety Management System (POSMS). It is project-oriented. So the idea is we’ve got a program, or a project, where we’re buying something – a piece of equipment or a service. We’re contracting for something. It’s a project with a beginning, a middle, and an end.

In POSMS, they refer to auditing as a ‘system audit’…

Personal Experience of Audit

Now, I’ve mentioned some personal experiences so far. But I’ve got a few specifics that I want to bring to your attention. I’m doing so on the basis of 25 years in the business of being a safety engineer (see ‘Meet the Author‘, below).

So I will talk very briefly, about safety audit, what is it really? I mean, we talked about process, the mechanics of it, but what are we trying to achieve?

When and why do we use audits? What practices should we be following? And what should we not be doing? That last one is important because it’s easy to do it wrong. Who can be an auditor?

Also, there’s a brief word about the three different terms that get commonly confused. There are Independent Safety Auditors, Independent Safety Assessors, and Independent Safety Advisors. They are all ‘ISA’s and that sometimes gets confusing. What are the differences?…

Get the Webinar

See the whole webinar at the Safety Engineering Academy. (You can get discounts on membership by subscribing to my free emails.)

Course Curriculum

There are LOTS of goodies in this one.

  1. Videos & Slides:
  2. Safety Audit Templates:
    • aap01a-f-01 Audit Schedule
    • aap01a-f-02 Audit Details Team Composition and Competence Record
    • aap01a-g-01 Audit Competency Interim Guidance
    • aap01b-f-01 Audit Plan
    • aap01b-f-02 Audit Proforma
    • aap01c-f-01 Record of Audit Meeting
    • aap01d-f-01 Audit Report Template
    • aap02-f-01 Monitoring Schedule
    • aap02-f-02 Monitoring Data – Assessment Record
    • aap03-f-01 Management Review Form
    • aap04-f-01 Non-Conformance and Corrective Action Form
  3. )

There are five videos with an hour of content, (51 videos with 8.5 hours of webinar content in total). See it all at The Safety Engineering Academy here. More content is added every month.

Meet the Author

Learn safety engineering with me, an industry professional with 25 years of experience, I have:

•Worked on aircraft, ships, submarines, ATMS, trains, and software;

•Tiny programs to some of the biggest (Eurofighter, Future Submarine);

•In the UK and Australia, on US and European programs;

•Taught safety to hundreds of people in the classroom, and thousands online;

•Presented on safety topics at several international conferences.

Categories
Mil-Std-882E Safety Analysis

Operating & Support Hazard Analysis

In this full-length session, I look at Operating & Support Hazard Analysis, or O&SHA, which is Task 206 in Mil-Std-882E. I explore Task 206’s aim, description, scope, and contracting requirements.

There’s value-adding commentary, which explains O&SHA: how to use it with other tasks; how to apply it effectively on different products; and some of the pitfalls to avoid. This is based on my 25 years in system safety and my background in operations and maintenance.

I also refer to other lessons for specific tools and techniques, such as Human Factors analysis methods.

This is the seven-minute-long demo. The full version is about 35 minutes long.

Operating & Support Hazard Analysis: Topics

  • Task 206 Purpose:
    • To identify and assess hazards introduced by O&S activities and procedures;
    • To evaluate the adequacy of O&S procedures, facilities, processes, and equipment used to mitigate risks associated with identified hazards.
  • Task Description (six slides);
  • Reporting (two slides);
  • Contracting (two slides); and
  • Commentary (four slides).

Operating & Support Hazard Analysis: Transcript

Introduction

Hello everyone and welcome to the Safety Artisan; home of safety engineering training. I’m Simon and today we’re going to be carrying on with our series on Mil. Standard 882E system safety engineering.

Operating & Support Hazard Analysis

Today, we’re going to be moving on to the subject of operating and support hazard analysis. This is, as it says, task 206 under the standard. Operating and support hazard analysis, I’ll just call it O&S or OSHA (also O&SHA) for short. Unfortunately, that will confuse people if I call OSHA. Let’s call it O&S.

Topics for this Session

The purpose of O&S hazard analysis is to identify and assess hazards introduced by those activities and procedures and to evaluate the adequacy of O&S procedures, processes, equipment, facilities, etc, to mitigate risks that have been already identified. A twofold task but a very big task. And as we’ll see, we’ve got lots of slides today on task description, and reporting, contracting, and commentary. As always, I present the full text as is of the task, which is copyright free, but I’m only going to talk about the things that are important. So, we’re not going to go through every little clause of the standard that would be pointless.

O&S Hazard Analysis (T206)

Let’s get started with the purpose. As we’ve already said, it’s to identify and assess those hazards which are introduced by operational and support activities and procedures and evaluate their adequacy. So, we’re looking at operating the system, whatever it may be- And of course, this is a military standard, so we assume a military system, but not all military systems are weapon systems by any means. Not all are physical systems.

There may be inventory management systems, management information systems, all kinds of stuff. So, does operating those systems and just supporting them, maintaining them are resupplying them, disposing of them, etc – Does that create any hazards or introduce any hazards? And how do we mitigate? That’s the purpose of the task.

Task Description (T206) #1

Let’s move on to the task description. Again, we’re assuming a contractor is performing the analysis, but that’s not necessarily the case. For this task, this actually says this typically begins during engineering and manufacturing development, or EMD.  So, we’re assuming an American style lifecycle for a big system and EMD comes after concept and requirements development. So, we are beginning to move into the very expensive stage of development for a system where we begin to commit serious money.

It’s suggesting that O&SHA can wait until then which is fine in general unless you’ve identified any particularly novel hazards that will need to be dealt with earlier on. As it says, it should build on design hazard analyses, but we’ll also talk about the case later on when there is no design hazard analyses. And the O&SHA shall identify requirements or alternatives or eliminating hazards, mitigating risks, etc. This is one of those tasks where the human is very important – In fact, dominant to be honest. Both as a source of hazards and the potential victim of the associated risks. A lot of human-centric stuff going on here.

Task Description (T206) #2

As always, we’re going to think about the system configurations. We’re going to think about what we’re going to do with the system and the environment that we’re going to do it in. So, a familiar triad and I know I keep banging on about this, but this really is fundamental to bounding and therefore evaluating safety. We’ve got to know what the system is, what we’re doing with it, and the environment in which we’re doing it. Let’s move on…

Click here to see the full transcript.

End: Operating & Support Hazard Analysis

So, that is the end of the lesson and it just remains for me to say thank you very much for your time and for listening. And I look forward to seeing you again soon. Cheers.

Meet the Author

Learn safety engineering with me, an industry professional with 25 years of experience, I have:

•Worked on aircraft, ships, submarines, ATMS, trains, and software;

•Tiny programs to some of the biggest (Eurofighter, Future Submarine);

•In the UK and Australia, on US and European programs;

•Taught safety to hundreds of people in the classroom, and thousands online;

•Presented on safety topics at several international conferences.

Categories
Mil-Std-882E Safety Analysis System Safety

System Requirements Hazard Analysis

In this 45-minute session, I’m looking at System Requirements Hazard Analysis, or SRHA, which is Task 203 in the Mil-Std-882E standard. I will explore Task 203’s aim, description, scope, and contracting requirements.  SRHA is an important and complex task, which must be done on several levels to succeed.  This video explains the issues and discusses how to perform SRHA well.

This is the seven-minute demo video, the full version is 40 minutes’ long.

Topics: System Requirements Hazard Analysis

  • Task 202 Purpose;
  • Task Description:
    • Determine Requirements;
    • Incorporate Requirements; and
    • Assess the compliance of the System.
  • Contracting;
  • Section 4.2 (of the standard); and
  • Commentary.

Transcript

Introduction

Hello and welcome to the Safety Artisan, where you will find professional, pragmatic and impartial advice on all things system, safety and related.

System Requirements Hazard Analysis

Today, we’re talking about system requirements hazard analysis. And this is part of our series on Mil. Standard 882E, and this one is Task 203. And it’s a very widely used system safety engineering standard. Its influence is found in many places, not just in military procurement programs.

Topics for this Session

We’re looking at this task, which is very important, possibly the most important task of all, as we’ll see. I’m talking about the purpose of the task, which is word-for-word from the task description itself.

We’re talking about in the task description, the three aims of this task, which is to determine or work out requirements, incorporate them, and then assess the compliance of the system with those requirements, because, of course, it may not be a simple read-across. We’ve got six slides on that. That’s most of the task.

Then we’ve just got one slide on contracting, which if you’ve seen any of the others in this series, will seem very familiar. We’ve got a bit of a chat about Section 4.2 from the standard and some commentary, and the reason for that will become clear. Let’s crack on!

System Requirements Hazard Analysis

Task 203.1, the purpose of Task 203 is to perform and document a System Requirements Hazard Analysis or SRHA. And as we’ve already said, the purpose of this is to determine the design requirements. We’re going to focus on design rather than buying stuff off the shelf – we’ll talk about the implications of that a little bit later.

Design requirements to eliminate or reduce hazards and risks, incorporate those requirements, into a says, into the documentation, but what it should say is incorporate risk reduction measures into the system itself and then document it.

Finally, to assess compliance of the system with these requirements. Then it says the SRHA address addresses all life-cycle phases, so not just meant for you to think about certain phases of the program. What are the requirements through life for the system? And in all modes. Whether it’s in operation, whether it’s in maintenance or refit, whether it’s being repaired or disposed of, whatever it might be.

Task Description #1

The first of six slides is the task description. I’m using more than one colour because there’s some quite a lot of important points packed quite tightly together in this description.

We’re assuming that the contractor performs and documents this SRHA. The customer needs to do a lot of work here before ever gets near a contractor. More on that later. We need to determine system design requirements to eliminate hazards or reduce associated risks.

Two things here. By identifying applicable policies, regulations, standards, etc. More on that later. And analyzing identified hazards. So, requirements to perform the analysis as well as to simply just state ‘We want a system to do this and not to do that’. So, we need to put some requirements to say ‘Here’s what we want analyzed maybe to what degree? And why.’ is always helpful.

Task Description #2

Breaking those breaking those two requirements down.

Part a. We identify applicable requirements by reviewing our military and industry standards and specs, and historical documentation of systems that are similar or with a system that we’re replacing, perhaps. It’s assumed that the US Department of Defense is the customer, the ultimate customer. So, the ultimate customer’s requirements, including whatever they’ve said about standard ways of mitigating certain common risks.

The system performance spec, that’s your functional performance spec or whatever you want to call it. Other system design requirements and documents – a bit of a catchall there. And applicable federal, military, state, and local regulations.

This is a US standard. It’s a federated state, much like Australia and lots of modern states, even the UK. There are variations in law across England, Wales, Scotland and Ireland. They’re not great, but they do exist.

And in the US and Australia, those differences are greater. And it says applicable executive orders. Executive orders, they’re not law, but they are what the executive arm of the U.S. government has issued, and international agreements. There are a lot of words in there – have a look at the different statements that are in white, blue, and yellow.

Basically, from international agreements right down to whatever requirements may be applicable, they all need to be looked at and accounted for. So, there’s a huge amount of work there for someone to do. I’ll come back to who that someone should be later.

End: System Requirements Hazard Analysis

You can find a free pdf of the System Safety Engineering Standard, Mil-Std-882E, here.

Meet the Author

Learn safety engineering with me, an industry professional with 25 years of experience, I have:

•Worked on aircraft, ships, submarines, ATMS, trains, and software;

•Tiny programs to some of the biggest (Eurofighter, Future Submarine);

•In the UK and Australia, on US and European programs;

•Taught safety to hundreds of people in the classroom, and thousands online;

•Presented on safety topics at several international conferences.

Categories
Blog Functional Safety System Safety

Identify and Analyze Functional Hazards

So, how do we identify and analyze functional hazards? I’ve seen a lot of projects and programs. We’re great at doing the physical hazards, but not so good at the functional hazards.

Introduction: Identify and Analyze Functional Hazards

So, when I talk about physical and functional hazards, the physical stuff, I think we’re probably all very familiar with them. They’re all to do with energy and toxicity.

Physical Hazards

So with energy, it might be fire, it might be electric shock. Potential energy, the potential energy of someone at height, or something falling. The impact of the kinetic energy. And then of course, in terms of toxicity, we’ve got hazardous chemicals, which we have to deal with. And then we’ve got biological hazards, plus smoke and toxic gasses, often from fires. Or chemical reactions.

So those are your physical hazards. As I said, we tend to be good at dealing with those. We’re used to dealing with that stuff. And most projects I’ve been on have been pretty good at identifying and analyzing that stuff. Not so for functional hazards.

Functional Hazards

I’ve been on lots of projects still today where functional hazards are just ignored completely or they’re only dealt with partially. So let’s explain what I mean about functional hazards. What we’re talking about is where a system is required to do something to perform some function. For example, cars move. They start, they move and they stop, hopefully.

Loss of Function

But what happens when those functions go wrong? What happens when we don’t get the function when we need it? The brakes fail on your car, for example. And so that’s a fairly obvious one. When functional hazards are looked at, it’s usually the functional failures that get attention.

But if that is the obvious failure mode, the less obvious failure modes tend to be more dangerous and there are the two.

Other Functional Failure Modes

So what happens if things work when they shouldn’t? What if you’re driving along on a road or the motorway, perhaps at high speed, and your brakes slam on for no apparent reason? Perhaps there is somebody behind you. Do you have a collision or do you lose control on the road and crash?

What if the function works, but it works incorrectly? For example, you turn the temperature down but instead, it goes up. Or you steer to the left, but instead, your vehicle goes to the right.

What if a display shows the wrong information? If you’re in a plane, maybe you’ve got an altimeter that tells you how high you are. It would be dangerous if the altimeter told you that you were level or climbing, but you were descending towards the ground. Yeah, we’ve had lots of that kind of accident.

So there’s an overview of what I mean by physical and functional hazards.

The Webinar: Identify and Analyze Functional Hazards

See the whole webinar at the Safety Engineering Academy. (You can get discounts on membership by subscribing to my free emails.)

Course Curriculum

  1. Introduction
  2. Preliminary Hazard Identification (PHI)
  3. Functional Failure Analysis
  4. Functional Hazard Analysis (FHA)

There are 11 lessons with two-and-a-half hours of video content, plus other resources. See the Foundations of System Safety here.

Meet the Author

Learn safety engineering with me, an industry professional with 25 years of experience, I have:

•Worked on aircraft, ships, submarines, ATMS, trains, and software;

•Tiny programs to some of the biggest (Eurofighter, Future Submarine);

•In the UK and Australia, on US and European programs;

•Taught safety to hundreds of people in the classroom, and thousands online;

•Presented on safety topics at several international conferences.